1.     Organic and inorganic materials included in the matrix of bone are:  
        
a.  calcium phosphate
        
b.  collagen fibers  
       
c.  calcium carbonate
       
d.  all of the above

2.     The type of bone cell that dissolves the bony matrix to release stored minerals is:  
         
a. osteocyte
         
b. osteoprogenitor
         
c. osteoclast
         
d. osteoblast  

3.     Which of the following is not true of concentric lamellae? 
         
a.   they are cylindrical, resembling a "bulls-eye"
         
b.   they form a series of concentric rings around the central canal
         
c.   they are formed by osteoblasts
         
d.   they are formed by osteoclasts

  4.     In the skeletal system, spongy bone is not located in areas:
         
a.   where bone is not heavily stressed
         
b.   where stresses arrive from many directions
         
c.   at the expanded ends of long bones
         
d.   on the surface of bone

5.     The struts or plates within spongy bone that assist in withstanding stresses in a specific direction are:          a.   lamellae
b.   periosteum
c.   trabeculae
d.   lacunae

6.     Which of the following processes occur during endochondral bone formation?
         
a.   calcification of the matrix of the cartilage model occurs 
         
b.   cells of the perichondrium differentiate into osteoblasts 
         
c.   capillaries and osteoblasts enter the cartilage
         
d.   all of the processes above occur during endochondral bone formation

7.     The hyaline cartilage model of endochondral bone formation grows by:
         
a.   interstitial growth 
         
b.   appositional growth
         
c.   epiphyseal growth
         
d.   a and b are correct

 8.     The osteoblasts in the cellular layer of periosteum form:
         
a.   concentric lamellae
         
b.   circumferential lamellae
         
c.   interstitial lamellae
         
d.   trabecular lamellae

9.     Which of the following is true of the foramen magnum?  a.   it is located within the occipital bone
b.   it is located between the parietal and occipital bones
c.   it allows passage of the carotid arteries into the head 
d.   it is the second largest foramen in the cranium

 10.     Maxillary bone features include:
         
a.   sinuses 
         
b.   alveolar processes
         
c.   orbital rim
         
d.   all of the above

11.     The vertebral arches encloses the:
         
a.   intervertebral foramen
         
b.   transverse foramen
         
c.   vertebral foramen
         
d.   foramen spinosum

 12.     Which of the following vertebra has a transverse foramen? 
         
a.   sacral
         
b.   cervical
         
c.   lumbar
         
d.   thoracic

13.     The corners of the scapula include:
a.   superior angle, medial angle, lateral angle           b.   superior angle, inferior angle, lateral angle
c.   inferior angle, lateral angle, axillary
d.   inferior angle,  medial angle, vertebral angle

14.     The lateral contour of the shoulder is formed by what part of the humerus? 
        
a.   surgical neck 
        
b.   greater tubercle
        
c.   intertubercular groove 
        
d.   lesser tubercle

 15.     The socket that receives the head of the femur is the:
         
a.   glenoid cavity
         
b.   popliteal fossa
         
c.   acetabulum 
         
d.   sciatic notch

  16.     Most of the anterior surface of the scapula is formed by the:
         
a.   glenoid cavity
         
b.   subscapular fossa
         
c.   infraspinous fossa 
         
d.   supraspinous fossa

  17.     A joint which permits a slight amount of movement is a(n): 
   
              a.        gomphosis
   
               b.        suture
   
               c.        syndesmosis
   
               d.        synostosis

   18.      Examples of angular motion include all of the following except:
         
a.        flexion
         
b.        adduction
         
c.        extension 
         
d.        rotation

   19.     A movement away from the longitudinal axis of the body in the frontal plane is:
         
a.        abduction
         
b.        flexion
         
c.        extension 
         
d.        rotation

  20.   Which of the ligaments of the knee is responsible for limiting the anterior-posterior movement of the femur and maintaining the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles?
         
a.        anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
         
b.        patellar ligament 
         
c.        popliteal ligaments
         
d.        tibial and fibular collateral ligaments