Anatomy 125

Exam I

Lab 1: Cytology
Cell Models (Two Different Models): New Model and Old Model
Videos:  Old Model: Nucleus &Centrioles, Membranous Organelles
 New Model: Cell Membrane & Nucleus, Membranous Organelles, Nonmembranous Organelles          
Nucleus --- nuclear membrane --- nucleoplasm --- nucleolus --- chromatin --- ribosomes --- Golgi complex or apparatus --- cytoplasm --- cell membrane (distinct structure only on older model) --- smooth (agranular) endoplasmic reticulum --- rough (granular) endoplasmic reticulum --- centrosome (distinct only on older model) --- centrioles --- mitochondria with cristae --- lysosomes --- peroxisome (only on older model) --- fat vacuole (only on newer model) --- secretory vesicles.
Parts of Microscope; How to Use Microscope (Please note: In the microscope in this tutorial the fine focus adjustment and illuminator switches are in different locations.)
Objectives: 4X (scanning); 20X; 40X (high dry); 100X (oil immersion lens) --- ocular or eyepiece (10X) --- mechanical stage --- coarse and fine focus adjustment knobs --- light source and switch --- condenser --- iris diaphragm lever --- base --- arm --- revolving nosepiece --- slide holder --- parfocal (Do not try to find this! It is a concept! The concept is the retention of focus when magnification is changed. It is a property of your microscope.)
Mitosis (Asexual Cellular Division)
1. Slide #1 (whitefish blastula)
Find all the stages of mitosis and interphase. 
2. Mitosis models Video: Mitosis Models
Identify: interphase --- all stages of mitosis (PMAT) --- spindle fibers --- chromosomes --- cleavage furrow --- centrioles ---kinetochore microtubule --- aster microtubule. To view each phase click on the appropriate links: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
Lab 2: Epithelial Tissues   Orientation Movie for Blackboard.swf  http://yccd.blackboard.com
For the following slides you will be expected to recognize the various types of epithelium, know their locations and be able to find the basement membrane and lumen were applicable.
Slide #4A (simple squamous epithelium
Slide #4 shows simple squamous epithelium from a cross sectional view where it looks thin. This epithelium is also called mesothelium. It is found on the same slide that has simple columnar epithelium but lines the outer edge. The blood vessels and lymphatic vessels that you see within the intestines are lined by endothelium.
Note on the same slide: (simple columnar epithelium, nonciliated)
Note the lumen of the intestines (Lumen: The cavity or channel within a hollow or tubular organ.). The lumen is lined by simple columnar epithelium. Locate: nuclei of columnar cells --- goblet cells --- lumen --- lamina propria (connective tissue of mucous membrane) --- apical cell membrane (thick because of microvilli).
Slide #3A (simple cuboidal epithelium in kidney)
Find the tissue. You can also see lumen and basement membrane in this slide.
Slide #5A (pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium)
Locate nuclei, cilia, and goblet cells as well as epithelium.
Slide #6A (stratified squamous epithelium, nonkeratinized)
Find lumen and connective and epithelial tissue. We will see keratinized stratified squamous epithelium when we look at skin.
Slide #7A (transitional epithelium)
Find the lumen and lamina propria (connective tissue) as well as the epithelial tissue.
Lab 3: Connective Tissues  
We will now be looking at the various kinds of connective tissue. All types will be examined except elastic connective tissue, bone and blood. These will be studied in other units.
A. Loose Connective Tissue 
Slide #8A (areolar connective tissue
Matrix (Not a distinct structure in this slide! You are only aware of its presence.) The matrix contains ground substance that is a diversity of large molecules including hyaluronic acid suspended in water that are not visible and fibers that you can see. There are two types of fibers: elastic fibers (thinner and black) and collagen fibers (thicker and pink).
Connective tissue cells that can be seen in this slide include fibroblasts or fibrocytes. As I will explain, I will not expect you to differentiate between these two cell types. Macrophages (I will not ask you to identify these cells.) and mast cells.
Slide #15A (adipose tissue)
Locate the fat vacuole (or where it was) and the nucleus. Is there much intercellular matrix?
Slide #10A (reticular connective tissue)
The stain used in this slide makes the fibers appear very dark. The reticular fibers form the stroma (framework) of this organ (lymph node) and of many other organs. The functional cells of the organ are called the parenchyma.
B. Dense Connective Tissue
Slide #9A (dense regular connective tissue)
This is a section of tendon. The collagen fibers look like smooth, wavy hair. Fibroblasts are scattered about in between the fibers but only the nuclei of these cells can be discerned.
Slide #20A (dense irregular connective tissue)
Dense irregular connective tissue is found in the dermis of the skin. The collagen fibers in this slide are arranged in various directions. We will be looking at this slide again in the next lab.
C. Cartilage
Cartilage is unique in being avascular. The matrix is a firm gel that contains chondroitin sulfate and other molecules. Chondrocytes are found within spaces called lacunae. Perichondrium is dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage.
Slide # 11A (hyaline cartilage)
This cartilage has the smoothest looking matrix. Find the lacunae, chondrocytes and perichondrium.
This cartilage has a "streaky" looking matrix due to the presence of extra collagen fibers. These fibers enhance the tensile strength of the cartilage.
Slide # 13A (elastic cartilage)
This is a section of the ear. The stain brings out the elastic fibers within the elastic cartilage. The matrix is dark and "messy" and has many large lacunae. The chondrocytes are often shriveled. 
Labs 4: Bone Anatomy and Development
A. Bone Histology
     1. Slide #14A   (Ground or compact bone, osteon, lacunae)
Find --- central (Haversian) canal --- perforating (Volkmann’s) canal --- concentric lamellae --- interstitial lamellae --- lacunae with osteocytes --- canaliculi --- osteon (Haversian system).
B. Models of Compact Bone
     1. Large Model
Videos:      Bone Model: Orientation, Periosteum, Circumferential Lamellae, Osteon, Interstitial Lamellae & Endosteon 
Find --- concentric lamellae --- interstitial lamellae --- circumferential lamellae --- lacunae --- osteocytes --- spongy (cancellous) bone --- endosteum --- periosteum with --- outer fibrous layer and --- inner osteogenic layer --- Sharpey’s fibers --- osteon --- perforating (Volkmann’s) canal --- central (Haversian) canal --- canaliculi.
     2. Model of Osteon (Haversian system) (superior view, lateral view)
Video: Osteon Model
Find --- central (Haversian) canal with artery, vein, lymph vessel and nerve --- concentric lamella --- lacunae --- canaliculi --- osteocytes--- osteocyte processes.
C. Bone Development
Slide #24A (Cancellous bone with epiphyseal plate, bone remodeling in diaphysis)
Find --- trabeculae (bony network) --- hemopoietic tissue (in bone marrow) --- osteoclasts often in Howship’s lacunae next to bone --- osteoblasts (endosteum) --- lacunae with osteocytes ---medullary (marrow) cavity --- zone of resting or reserve cartilage --- zone of proliferating cartilage --- zone of hypertrophic cartilage --- zone of calcified cartilage --- epiphysis --- diaphysis.
Lab 5: Integument
A. Histology
Slide #19 (Scalp)
Locate: epidermis --- stratum basale --- stratum spinosum --- stratum granulosum (may be absent) --- stratum corneum --- hair --- hair follicle --- external root sheath --- hair bulb --- matrix ---hair papilla  --- dermis --- arrector pili muscle --- sebaceous (oil) glands --- sudoriferous (sweat) glands.
Slide #20 (Thick skin)
Locate five layers of epidermis including --- stratum basale --- stratum spinosum --- stratum granulosum --- stratum corneum; two layers of dermis including: papillary layer --- reticular layer --- epidermal pegs --- dermal papilla --- suderiferous (sweat) glands.
Slide # 21, 22  (Pacinian and Meissner’s corpuscles)
The corpuscles of touch (Meissner’s corpuscle) are found in the dermal papillae and look a bit like whirlwinds. Not every papilla has one. Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles are found lower in the dermis or in the subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis). Lamellated corpuscles look like onions.
B. Models (There are two. Know both!) Simple Skin Model & Composite Skin Model
 Videos: Simple Skin Model: Epidermis, Dermis, Hair Follicle, Glands & Sensory Structures
Composite Skin Model: Introduction, Epidermis & Dermis, Hair Follicle, Glands, Sensory Structures
Between the two different skin models identify: all 4 or 5 strata of the epidermis --- eccrine sweat (sudoriferous) gland --- apocrine sweat gland --- two subdivisions of the dermis (reticular and papillary) --- dermal papilla --- hair root --- hair shaft --- sebaceous (oil) gland ---  hair papilla --- hair follicle --- bulb of hair follicle --- hair medulla --- hair cortex --- hair cuticle --- internal root sheath --- external root sheath --- arrector pili muscle --- subcutaneous layer (hypodermis) --- adipose tissue --- corpuscle of touch (Meissner’s) --- lamellated corpuscle (Pacinian). Note: the largest model of the skin shows skin from three sections of the body.