Droual
Anatomy 125

Exam 3

 
Lab 1: Upper Digestive System and Digestive System Histology
   Video: Cloaca Sculpture 
A. Models of Head and Teeth
1. Upright half head model (lateral view, inferior view, sagittal view)
Find – parotid salivary gland --- parotid (Stensen’s) duct --- submandibular salivary gland --- vermilion --- nasopharynx --- oropharynx --- laryngopharynx --- hard palate --- soft palate --- uvula --- epiglottis --- esophagus --- trachea --- the tonsils --- buccal or oral cavity --- fauces --- gingivae.
 
2. Torso half head model
Find – parotid salivary gland --- submandibular salivary gland --- submandibular (Wharton’s) duct --- sublingual salivary gland with lesser sublingual (Rivinus) duct --- root, body and apex of tongue --- circumvallate papillae --- papillae --- bucal or oral cavity.
 
3. Single tooth model
Find – crown --- neck --- roots --- pulp cavity or chamber --- pulp --- root canal --- apical foramen --- dentin --- enamel --- cementum.
 
4. Half jaw with teeth model (lateral view, medial view)
Find – incisors (medial and lateral) --- cuspid or canine tooth --- mandible --- premolars or bicuspids (first and second) --- molars (primary, secondary --- third molar (wisdom tooth) --- dentin --- enamel --- crown --- alveolar process --- inferior alveolar nerve --- caries --- an erupting tooth.
 
B. Esophagus     
Be able to identify the esophagus in the various models.
 
C. Histology of Stomach
Find – tunica mucosa --- gastric pits --- gastric glands ---  tunica submucosa --- parietal cells --- surface mucous cells --- chief cells --- enteroendocrine cells.
 
2. Models of the stomach (Outside view, interior view1, interior view 2)
  Videos: Regions & Muscle Layers; Mucosal Surface  
Find – Fundus --- esophagus --- lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac or cardioesophageal sphincter) --- cardia --- three layers of the tunica muscularis (oblique, circular, longitudinal) --- body --- lesser curvature --- greater curvature --- pylorus (antrum and canal) --- pyloric sphincter --- rugae --- tunica mucosa --- gastric gland --- duodenum.
 
D. Small Intestines
1. Histology (duodenumplicae circulares, villus, simple columnar epithelium)
Find – tunica mucosa --- simple columnar epithelium --- brush border --- goblet cells --- villi --- lacteals (look like spaces inside the villi) --- basement membrane --- intestinal crypts (crypts of Lieberkuhn) --- muscularis mucosa --- lamina propria --- tunica submucosa --- submucosal (Brunner’s) glands --- lymph nodes (may not be present in your slide) --- tunica muscularis or muscularis externa --- circular and longitudinal muscle layers --- myenteric (Auerbach) plexus --- tunica serosa (visceral peritoneum).
 
2. Model of histology of duodenum (lateral view, inferior view)
  Videos: Layers (Transverse View); Layers & Mucosa; Submucosa; Muscularis & Serosa; Intestinal Glands 
Find – tunica mucosa with simple columnar epithelium --- goblet cells --- intestinal crypts (crypts of Lieberkuhn) --- Paneth cells (red cells at bottom of the crypts) --- lamina propria --- villus --- lacteal (light green in the villus) --- muscularis mucosa --- blood capillaries --- tunica submucosa with lymph nodule (light blue and purple mass) --- submucosal (Brunner’s) glands (light blue) --- submucosal (Meissner’s) plexus (yellow) --- tunica muscularis or muscularis externa --- myenteric plexus (plexus of Auerbach) (found between the circular and longitudinal layers of the tunica muscularis) --- branches of the mesenteric vein and artery --- tunica serosa with mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium).
Grey represents connective tissue, yellow represents nervous tissue, flesh colored or pink is muscle (except the simple columnar epithelium) and light green if for lymph vessels.
 
E. Histology of Colon (colon, mucosa of colon, goblet cells)
Find – tunica mucosa --- simple columnar epithelial layer --- lamina propria --- lymphatic nodule --- tunica submucosa --- muscularis externa or tunica muscularis --- taenia coli (if present).
 
F. Histology of Liver and Pancreas
1. Liver 1, Liver 2, Kupffer cells
Find – liver lobule --- central vein --- sinusoids --- hepatocytes (plate) --- stellate reticuloendothelial (Kupffer) cells (triangular in shape, dark and found within the sinusoids) --- bile ductule (lined with cuboidal epithelium) --- branch of hepatic portal vein (has largest lumen) --- branches of hepatic artery (thick wall and small lumen).
 
2. Pancreas (low magnification, higher magnification)
Find – pancreatic islet (islet of Langerhans) (lighter stained group of cells) --- acinar cells or pancreatic acini (the greater majority of cells and very dark staining --- pancreatic ducts.
 
G. Model of Liver
1. Model of liver (inferior view, posterior view, anterior view)
  Videos: Porta Hepatis; Lobes; Inferior Surface 
Find – hepatic artery --- hepatic veins --- hepatic portal vein --- left and right hepatic (bile) ducts --- cystic duct --- gall bladder --- round ligament (ligamentum teres) --- falciform ligament --- caudate lobe --- quadrate lobe --- right lobe --- left lobe --- inferior vena cava --- common hepatic duct --- ligamentum venosum.
 
H. Model of Torso
Find – hepatic or right colic flexure --- splenic or left coli flexure --- transverse colon --- ascending colon --- sigmoid colon --- rectum --- descending colon --- taeniae coli --- haustra --- ileum --- ileocecal valve or sphincter --- cecum --- mesocolon --- pylorus --- jejunum --- vermiform appendix --- lesser curvature of stomach --- greater curvature of stomach --- fundus of stomach --- C-loop of duodenum --- gall bladder --- spleen --- liver --- pancreas with pancreatic duct --- sublingual salivary gland --- tongue --- lesser sublingual (Rivinus) duct --- submandibular salivary gland --- submandibular (Wharton’s) duct --- parotid salivary gland --- esophagus.
 
Lab 2: Urinary System
 
A. Histology of Urinary System
1. Slide #6B (kidney)
Find – glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule together called the renal corpuscle --- proximal convoluted tubule (lumen smaller due to larger cells and microvilli which stain pink) --- distal convoluted tubule (more open lumen) --- collecting duct (very distinct, cuboidal cells with scalloped appearance) --- juxtaglomerular apparatus with --- juxtaglomerular cells --- and macula densa.
 
2. Slide #7B (ureter)
Find – transitional epithelium --- mucosa --- lamina propria --- tunica muscularis --- (longitudinal and circular layers) --- adventitia.
 
B. Models of Urinary System
 
1. Larger kidney model
  Videos: Blood Circulation; Cortex & Medulla
Find – renal cortex --- renal medulla --- renal pyramid --- renal column --- renal papilla --- minor calyx --- major calyx --- renal pelvis --- renal capsule --- renal artery --- renal vein --- renal sinus (with adipose tissue) --- segmental artery and vein --- interlobar artery and vein --- arcuate artery and vein --- interlobular artery and vein --- hilus --- ureter.
 
2. Triangular section of kidney model
  Videos: Cortex & Medulla; Juxtaglomerular Nephron; Cortical Nephron
Find – renal cortex --- renal medulla --- renal corpuscle --- glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule --- nephron --- proximal convoluted tubule --- distal convoluted tubule --- loop of Henle --- connecting tubule --- collecting duct --- papillary duct --- interlobar artery and vein --- arcuate artery and vein --- interlobular artery and vein --- afferent and efferent arterioles --- vasa recta --- pyramids.
 
3. Renal corpuscle model with removable glomerulus
  Videos: Tubular & Vascular Poles; Renal Capsule 
Find – glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule with parietal and visceral layer --- glomerulus --- podocytes with pedicels and filtration slits (visceral layer of glomerular capsule) --- proximal convoluted tubule with microvilli --- capsular space --- juxtaglomerular apparatus --- juxtaglomerular cells --- macula densa --- efferent arteriole --- afferent arteriole.
 
C. Preserved Human and Pork Kidneys
Find – renal capsule --- renal cortex --- renal medulla --- renal column --- minor calyx --- renal pyramid --- renal papilla --- minor calyx --- renal pelvis --- adipose tissue --- ureter --- hilus.
 
Lab 3 & 4: Reproductive System
 
A. Histology of Male Reproductive System
1. Slide #11B (testis)
Find – seminiferous tubules --- interstitial endocrinocytes (cells of Leydig) --- spermatogonium (large and on the edge of the tubule) --- spermatocytes (primary and secondary) going through meiosis --- spermatid (small, dark staining and round) --- spermatozoa (bullet-shaped cells with tails) --- sustentacular (Sertoli) cells (large nucleus with prominent nucleolus).
 
2. Slide #12B (penis)
Find – Dorsal artery and vein --- two corpora cavernosa penis --- corpus spongiosum penis --- spongy (cavernous) urethra --- median septum --- tunica albuginea --- deep arteries inside the corpus cavernosum.
 
B. Models of Male Reproductive System
1. Male reproductive plaque
  Videos: Ductus Deferens & Sex Glands; External Genitalia; Urinary Bladder; Root of the Penis;
Find – urinary bladder --- rugae --- trigone --- detrusor muscle --- ureter and ureteral openings --- prostate gland --- seminal vesicle --- scrotum --- testis --- epididymis --- vas (ductus) deferens --- spermatic cord --- cremaster muscle --- ampulla of vas deferens --- ejaculatory duct --- prostatic urethra --- urogenital diaphragm --- membranous urethra --- penis --- glans penis --- corpus spongiosum --- spongy (penile) urethra --- corpora cavernosa --- median septum --- pubic symphysis --- rectum --- external anal sphincter --- anus --- vesicorectal pouch --- pampiniform plexus.
 
2. Stand-up model of male urinary and reproductive systems (posterior view, sagittal view)
Find – urinary bladder --- seminal vesicle --- prostate --- crus, bulb and glans of penis --- ductus deferens --- testis --- epididymis --- trigone --- median septum.
 
3. Male reproductive upright (anterior view, posterior view, sagittal view)
  Videos: Ductus Deferens & Sex Glands; Scrotum & Inguinal Canal; Penis; Skeletal Muscles & Urinary Bladder;
Find – urinary bladder --- bulb of penis ---  prostate gland --- seminal vesicles --- vas (ductus) deferens --- ampullae ---spermatic cord --- corpus spongiosum --- glans penis --- ejaculatory duct --- inguinal canal --- testis --- epididymis --- scrotum --- pampiniform plexus of testicular veins --- prostatic urethra --- membranous urethra --- penile urethra --- bulbourethral gland.
 
C. Histology of Female Reproductive System
1. Slide #13B (ovary with mature follicles)
Find – germinal epithelium --- tunica albuginea --- primary oocyte --- primordial follicle (small and towards the surface of the ovary with simple squamous follicular cells) --- primary follicle (with one layer of cuboidal follicular cells around the oocyte) --- secondary follicle (vesicular follicle) with two or more layers of follicular cells around the oocyte --- Graafian follicle (mature vesicular or tertiary follicle) --- corona radiata --- zona pellucida --- theca cells --- granulosa cells --- atretic follicles (blue and degenerative) --- antrum.
 
2. Slide #14B (ovary with corpus luteum)
Find – corpus luteum --- theca lutein cells --- granulosa lutein cells --- corpus albicans.
 
D. Models of Female Reproductive System
1. Female reproductive system ( whole model, midsagittal view, interior view)
  Videos: Pelvic Organs (Surface View); Midsagittal View; External Genitalia 
Find – mons pubis --- vulva --- pubic symphysis --- urinary bladder --- urethra --- ureter --- ovary --- uterine (fallopian) tube with --- infundibulum --- fimbriae --- ampulla --- and isthmus --- uterus with --- fundus --- cervical canal with internal and external os --- myometrium --- endometrium --- perimetrium --- fornix --- vagina --- clitoris --- labia minora (minus) --- labia majora (majus) --- anus --- rectouterine pouch (pouch of Douglas) --- round ligament --- vesicouterine pouch --- broad ligament --- greater vestibular (Bartholin’s) gland --- uterosacral ligament.
 
2. Model of ovary
  Videos: Introduction; Primordial & Primary Follicles; Secondary & Mature Follicles; Corpus Luteum & Corpus Albicans 
Find – primary follicle --- atretic follicle --- hemorrhagic follicle (has blood because it just burst for ovulation) --- secondary or vescicular follicle --- oocyte --- corpus albicans --- corpus luteum --- granulosa cells --- theca cells --- germinal epithelium --- mesovarian --- ovarian ligament --- cumulus oophorus --- suspensory ligament --- antrum --- mature or Graafian follicle --- primordial follicles --- medulla of stroma --- where ovulation is occurring.
 
Cadaver and Review  [We may not be able to do this :(]
I will demonstrate these parts in small groups. You need to bring gloves in order to examine the cadaver on your own!
 
Find – parietal pleura --- visceral pleura --- parietal peritoneum --- visceral peritoneum --- pancreas --- pancreatic (Wirsung) duct --- accessory pancreatic (Santorini) duct --- liver with right, left and quadrate lobes --- falciform ligament --- gall bladder --- cystic duct --- common bile duct --- stomach --- greater and lesser curvatures --- small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) --- mesentery --- vermiform appendix --- cecum --- ascending colon --- hepatic (right colic) flexure --- transverse colon --- mesocolon --- splenic (left colic) flexure --- descending colon --- sigmoid colon --- taeniae coli --- epiploic appendages --- spleen --- kidney --- ureter --- urinary bladder --- hepatic portal vein --- testes --- vas or ductus deferens --- spermatic cord --- epididymis --- inguinal ring.
 
Lab 5. Axial Skeleton vertebral tutorial
     The material you will use to study the rest of the axial skeleton include vertebrae from box of bones, articulated spinal column, miscellaneous isolated vertebrae, vertebral columns of articulated skeletons
Cervical Vertebrae – C-1 (atlas) with --- anterior and posterior arches --- C-2 (axis) with --- dens (odontoid process) --- C-3 through C-4 --- C-7 (vertebra prominens) --- transverse foramina --- transverse process --- spinous process (some bifid) --- pedicle --- lamina --- superior articular process and facet --- inferior articular process and facet --- vertebral canal or foramen --- vertebral (neural) arch --- body (centrum).
Thoracic Vertebrae – T-1 through T-12 --- transverse process --- facets and demifacets for ribs --- spinous process --- pedicle --- lamina --- superior articular process and facet --- inferior articular process and facet --- vertebral canal or foramen --- vertebral (neural) arch --- body (centrum).
Lumbar Vertebrae – Transverse process --- spinous process --- pedicle --- lamina --- superior articular process and facet --- inferior articular process and facet --- vertebral canal or foramen --- vertebral (neural) arch --- body (centrum).
Sacrum – Sacral ala --- body --- anterior sacral foramina --- superior articular process and facet --- sacral promontory --- base of sacrum --- transverse line (ridge) --- apex of sacrum --- sacral canal --- posterior sacral foramina --- auricular surfaces --- median sacral crest --- sacral hiatus --- sacral cornu.
Coccyx – coccygeal cornu.
Sternum – manubrium --- body --- xiphoid process --- clavicular notch --- suprasternal (also manubrial or jugular) notch --- sternal angle --- costal notches.
Ribs - head (capitulum) --- tubercle --- neck --- costal groove --- seven true (vertebrosternal) ribs --- five false ribs divided into --- three vertebrochondral false ribs --- two floating false ribs.
 
Knee Models: (anterior view, posterior view, interior view)
  Videos: Anterior View; Cruciate Ligaments & Menisci
  Please be gentle with these models.
Find – anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (intracapsular ligaments) --- medial and lateral menisci --- extracapsular ligaments including --- lateral (fibular) collateral ligament --- medial (tibial) collateral ligament --- quadriceps femoris tendon --- patellar ligament --- patella --- tibial tuberosity --- fibula --- femur.