Droual
Anatomy 125

Exam 4
 

Labs 1: Skull
    Interactive Skull Tutorials: Skull I; Skull II
     Please note. All the bones are preserved human bones. Please be careful with the skull and all the bones. Use only plastic pointers and try not to punch any of the bones out. Many of the specimens are very fragile. Thank you.
 
Sagittal-cut skull, metopic skull, and disarticulated skull:
  These specimens show various features that are hard to see in other specimens.
Sagittal-cut skull shows the paranasal sinuses of the sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal and maxillary bones.
Metopic skull shows the metopic suture and sutural bones.
Disarticulated skull
shows the relative position of isolated bones including the ethmoid bone and the palantine bones.
 
Fetal Skulls:
  Note the fontanels (soft spots) of the fetal skulls.
 
Ear Ossicles:
  These are in plastic. Study them and be able to identify each when isolated.
Malleus (hammer) --- incus (anvil) --- stapes (stirrups).
 
Complete Skeleton:
  In addition to finding all the other bones note the hyoid. This bone is only seen here.
 
Here is a guide of what features you need to find on various bones:
 
Cranial Bones:1. Frontal coronal suture --- supraorbital foramen or notch --- superciliary arch or ridge --- supraorbital margin --- lacrimal fossa --- frontal paranasal sinuses (see sagittal-cut skull).
2. Parietal bones sagittal suture.
3. Temporal bones squamous suture --- zygomatic process --- external auditory (acoustic) meatus --- styloid process --- mastoid process with air cells --- carotid foramen (Leads into the carotid canal which opens in the interior of the skull on either side of the sella turcica of the sphenoid.) --- foramen lacerum (Not visible in the isolated bone! You see this jagged opening between the temporal and occipital bones on the skull from an inferior view.) --- jugular foramen (between temporal and occipital bones) --- stylomastoid foramen --- mandibular (glenoid) fossa --- articular tubercle --- internal auditory (acoustic) meatus --- petrous ridge.
4. Occipital lambdoid suture (most sutural bones found here)---sutural (Wormian) bones --- external occipital protuberance --- occipital condyle --- hypoglossal canal --- foramen magnum --- jugular notch (contributes to jugular foramen between occipital and temporal bones).
5. Sphenoid greater wing --- lesser wing --- sella turcica (includes the following: tuberculum sellae --- dosum sellae --- hypophyseal fossa) optic groove --- optic foramen --- foramen rotundum --- foramen ovale --- foramen spinosum --- sphenoidal paranasal sinus --- pterygoid process --- pterygoid canals --- superior orbital fissure.
6. Ethmoid ethmoidal paranasal sinuses --- perpendicular plate --- superior and middle nasal conchae --- crista galli --- cribriform plate with olfactory foramina.
 
Facial Bones:

1. Nasal bones - frontonasal suture.

2. Vomer part of nasal septum.
3. Maxillae infraorbital foramen --- maxillary paranasal sinus --- alveolar process --- palatine process (part of hard palate) --- inferior orbital fissure --- incisive foramen.
4. Inferior nasal conchae or turbinates
5. Zygomatic bones temporal process --- zygomaticofacial foramen.
6. Lacrimal bones lacrimal groove.
7. Palatine bones greater palatine foramen --- lesser palatine foramen --- horizontal plate.
8. Mandibles mental foramen --- mental protuberance --- alveolar process --- body --- condylar process --- coronoid process --- mandibular notch --- ramus --- mandibular foramen.
 
Hyoid (Look at complete skeleton) body --- greater horn (cornu) --- lesser horn (cornu)
 
Labs 2 - 4:
A. Muscle Histology
1. Slide #16A (striated or skeletal muscle)

Note that there are two types of slides and you only have one of them. One slide has two sections, a cross section and a longitudinal section while others have teased skeletal fibers. Make sure you look at both!

Find nuclei --- sarcolemma --- endomysium --- fascicle --- perimysium --- fiber --- striations.

2. Slide #23A (neuromuscular or myoneural junction)

Find terminal branches (telodendria) of motor axon ---  motor end plates.

B. Muscle Models
1. Skeletal muscle fiber (myoneural junction view, myofibril view)
    Videos:
Orientation
; Myofibrils
Find myofibrils --- sarcomere with Z-lines or discs --- A band --- I band --- sarcolemma --- endomysium --- synaptic end knob (bulb) --- motor end plate --- myelinated motor neuron --- nuclei --- synaptic cleft --- sarcoplasma --- mitochondria.
2. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers (Grey and yellow model)
   Videos: Cross Section View; Organelles; Sarcomere Structure
Look at the skeletal muscle only. It has three T-tubules; the cardiac muscle has two.

Find - Z line (disc) (1) --- I band, thin myofilaments (longitudinal view (2) and cross section (7)) --- A band (includes the region where thin and thick myofilaments overlap shown in longitudinal view (3) and in cross section (8)) --- H zone, thick myofilaments only (4) --- M line (5) --- sarcoplasmic reticulum (9) --- transverse tubule (13) --- terminal cisternae (10) --- sarcolemma (17) --- mitochondrion (19) --- glycogen granules (20).

C. Muscles of the Head and Neck
   Videos: 
 Muscles of Facial Expression - Eye   Muscles of Mastication   Infrahyoid Muscles 
 Muscle of Facial Expression - Mouth  Suprahyoid Muscles   Trapezius & Rhomboids 
 Levator scapulae & Deltoid 
There are two different head and neck models. One is a half head on a stand which can not be taken apart (model #1) and the other is a whole head and neck and can be taken apart (model #2).
Find frontalis and occipitalis (epicranius) --- galea aponeurotica (epicranial aponeurosis) --- zygomaticus major --- orbicularis oris --- levator labii superioris --- mentalis --- platysma --- buccinator --- risorius --- depressor anguli oris --- orbicularis oculi --- masseter --- sternocleidomastoid --- trapezius --- levator scapulae --- sternohyoid --- omohyoid (model #2) --- thyrohyoid --- sternothyroid --- temporalis --- depressor labii inferioris --- medial pterygoid (model #2) --- lateral pterygoid (model #2) --- digastricus (both bellies) --- mylohyoid --- nasalis.
D. Model of Eye
   Video: Eye Muscles
Find medial rectus --- lateral rectus --- superior rectus --- inferior rectus --- superior oblique (hangs from trochlea) --- inferior oblique --- levator palpebrae superioris.
E. Whole person model
   Videos: Muscles of Chest Region; Abdominal Muscles; Trapezius & Longissimus Dorsi
Find facial and neck muscles (see head and neck muscles) --- pectoralis major --- pectoralis minor --- deltoid --- rectus abdominis (with tendinous inscriptions) --- external oblique --- linea alba (not a muscle) --- internal oblique --- transversus abdominis --- serratus anterior --- levator scapulae --- trapezius --- rhomboideus major and minor --- infraspinatus --- supraspinatus --- teres minor --- teres major --- latissimus dorsi --- ligamentum nuchae (not a muscle) --- coracobrachialis --- biceps brachii (two heads) --- brachialis --- triceps brachii (three heads) --- brachioradialis --- flexor carpi radialis --- flexor carpi ulnaris --- extensor carpi ulnaris --- extensor carpi radialis --- externsor digitorum --- pronator teres --- sartorius --- rectus femoris --- vastus lateralis --- vastus medialis --- tensor fasciae latae --- iliotibial tract or band (not a muscle) --- gracilis --- adductor longus --- pectineus --- adductor magnus --- adductor brevis --- gluteus maximus --- gluteus medius --- piriformis --- gemellus (superior and inferior) --- internal obturator --- semimembranosus --- semitendinosus --- biceps femoris --- gastrocnemius --- soleus --- peroneus longus --- tibialis anterior --- Achilles tendon (not a muscle) --- extensor digitorum longus --- thoracolumbar (dorsolumbar) fascia.
 
F. Longitudinal model of spinal cord
Find quadratus lumborum --- iliopsoas divided into --- psoas major --- iliacus.
G. Model of arm muscles
   Videos:  Shoulder   Part 1; Part 2 
Arm   Arm 
Forearm  Extensors - Part 1; Extensors - Part 2; Flexors - Part 1 ; Flexors - Part 2 
Find pectoralis major --- latissimus dorsi --- deltoid --- supraspinatus --- infraspinatus --- subscapularis --- teres major --- teres minor --- biceps brachii (both long and short heads) --- triceps brachii (lateral, medial and long heads) --- coracobrachialis --- brachialis --- pronator teres --- brachioradialis --- flexor carpi radialis --- palmaris longus --- flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus --- flexor carpi ulnaris --- extensor carpi ulnaris --- extensor digitorum --- extensor carpi radialis (brevis and longus) --- extensor digitorum minimi --- abductor pollicis longus --- extensor pollicis brevis.
H. Diaphragm model
Find diaphragm --- central tendon --- thyrohyoid --- cricothyroid.
I. Male reproductive model
Find - levator ani --- external anal sphincter.
J. Model of human torso
Find depressor labii inferioris --- risorius --- depressor anguli oris --- orbicularis oris --- levator labii superioris --- zygomatic major --- masseter --- orbicularis oculi --- pectoralis major --- pectoralis minor --- sternocleidomastoid --- deltoid --- serratus anterior --- external oblique --- internal oblique --- transversus abdominis --- linea alba (not a muscle) --- gluteus maximus --- gluteus medius --- piriformis.
L. Leg model
   Videos:

    

     

Gluteal Region:  Part 1; Part 2
Thigh Region: Posterior Compartment; Medial Compartment; Anterior Compartment
Leg Region: Anterior Compartment; Lateral Compartment; Posterior Compartment: Deep Muscles; Superficial Muscles
Find tensor fascia latae --- gluteus maximus --- gluteus medius --- piriformis --- superior gemellus --- inferior gemellus --- obturator internus --- iliopsoas divided into --- psoas major --- and iliacus --- pectineus --- adductor longus --- adductor brevis --- adductor magnus --- sartorius --- semitendinosus --- semimembranosus --- biceps femoris --- quadriceps femors group with --- vastus lateralis --- vastus medialis --- vastus intermedius --- and rectus femoris --- gastrocnemius --- soleus --- gracilis --- peroneus longus --- peroneus brevis --- flexor digitorum longus --- tibialis anterior --- extensor digitorum longus --- extensor hallucis longus --- flexor hallucis longus --- Achilles (calcaneal) tendon (not a muscle) --- iliotibial band (also not a muscle).
M. Human cadaver
You will not be dissecting the cadavers yourself. They are already dissected.

We will be looking at the cadavers in small groups. You may wish to use your gloves. The instructor will demonstrate the muscles. These muscles will be on the lab test! If you manipulate the muscles please be gentle.

Use only metal probes or your gloved finger to point at the cadavers!