Lab 5. Axial Skeleton vertebral tutorial
     The material you will use to study the rest of the axial skeleton include vertebrae from box of bones, articulated spinal column, miscellaneous isolated vertebrae, vertebral columns of articulated skeletons
Cervical Vertebrae C-1 (atlas) with --- anterior and posterior arches --- C-2 (axis) with --- dens (odontoid process) --- C-3 through C-4 --- C-7 (vertebra prominens) --- transverse foramina --- transverse process --- spinous process (some bifid) --- pedicle --- lamina --- superior articular process and facet --- inferior articular process and facet --- vertebral canal or foramen --- vertebral (neural) arch --- body (centrum).
Thoracic Vertebrae T-1 through T-12 --- transverse process --- facets and demifacets for ribs --- spinous process --- pedicle --- lamina --- superior articular process and facet --- inferior articular process and facet --- vertebral canal or foramen --- vertebral (neural) arch --- body (centrum).
Lumbar Vertebrae Transverse process --- spinous process --- pedicle --- lamina --- superior articular process and facet --- inferior articular process and facet --- vertebral canal or foramen --- vertebral (neural) arch --- body (centrum).
Sacrum Sacral ala --- body --- anterior sacral foramina --- superior articular process and facet --- sacral promontory --- base of sacrum --- transverse line (ridge) --- apex of sacrum --- sacral canal --- posterior sacral foramina --- auricular surfaces --- median sacral crest --- sacral hiatus --- sacral cornu.
Coccyx coccygeal cornu.
Sternum manubrium --- body --- xiphoid process --- clavicular notch --- suprasternal (also manubrial or jugular) notch --- sternal angle --- costal notches.
Ribs - head (capitulum) --- tubercle --- neck --- costal groove --- seven true (vertebrosternal) ribs --- five false ribs divided into --- three vertebrochondral false ribs --- two floating false ribs.
 
Knee Models: (anterior view, posterior view, interior view)
  Videos: Anterior View; Cruciate Ligaments & Menisci
  Please be gentle with these models.
Find anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (intracapsular ligaments) --- medial and lateral menisci --- extracapsular ligaments including --- lateral (fibular) collateral ligament --- medial (tibial) collateral ligament --- quadriceps femoris tendon --- patellar ligament --- patella --- tibial tuberosity --- fibula --- femur.