Labs 1: Skull
    Interactive Skull Tutorials: Skull I; Skull II
     Please note. All the bones are preserved human bones. Please be careful with the skull and all the bones. Use only plastic pointers and try not to punch any of the bones out. Many of the specimens are very fragile. Thank you.
Sagittal-cut skull, metopic skull, and disarticulated skull:
  These specimens show various features that are hard to see in other specimens.
Sagittal-cut skull shows the paranasal sinuses of the sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal and maxillary bones.
Metopic skull shows the metopic suture and sutural bones.
Disarticulated skull
shows the relative position of isolated bones including the ethmoid bone and the palantine bones.
Fetal Skulls:
  Note the fontanels (soft spots) of the fetal skulls.
Ear Ossicles:
  These are in plastic. Study them and be able to identify each when isolated.
Malleus (hammer) --- incus (anvil) --- stapes (stirrups).
Complete Skeleton:
  In addition to finding all the other bones note the hyoid. This bone is only seen here.
Here is a guide of what features you need to find on various bones:
Cranial Bones:1. Frontal coronal suture --- supraorbital foramen or notch --- superciliary arch or ridge --- supraorbital margin --- lacrimal fossa --- frontal paranasal sinuses (see sagittal-cut skull).
2. Parietal bones sagittal suture.
3. Temporal bones squamous suture --- zygomatic process --- external auditory (acoustic) meatus --- styloid process --- mastoid process with air cells --- carotid foramen (Leads into the carotid canal which opens in the interior of the skull on either side of the sella turcica of the sphenoid.) --- foramen lacerum (Not visible in the isolated bone! You see this jagged opening between the temporal and occipital bones on the skull from an inferior view.) --- jugular foramen (between temporal and occipital bones) --- stylomastoid foramen --- mandibular (glenoid) fossa --- articular tubercle --- internal auditory (acoustic) meatus --- petrous ridge.
4. Occipital lambdoid suture (most sutural bones found here)---sutural (Wormian) bones --- external occipital protuberance --- occipital condyle --- hypoglossal canal --- foramen magnum --- jugular notch (contributes to jugular foramen between occipital and temporal bones).
5. Sphenoid greater wing --- lesser wing --- sella turcica (includes the following: tuberculum sellae --- dosum sellae --- hypophyseal fossa) optic groove --- optic foramen --- foramen rotundum --- foramen ovale --- foramen spinosum --- sphenoidal paranasal sinus --- pterygoid process --- pterygoid canals --- superior orbital fissure.
6. Ethmoid ethmoidal paranasal sinuses --- perpendicular plate --- superior and middle nasal conchae --- crista galli --- cribriform plate with olfactory foramina.
Facial Bones:

1. Nasal bones - frontonasal suture.

2. Vomer part of nasal septum.
3. Maxillae infraorbital foramen --- maxillary paranasal sinus --- alveolar process --- palatine process (part of hard palate) --- inferior orbital fissure --- incisive foramen.
4. Inferior nasal conchae or turbinates
5. Zygomatic bones temporal process --- zygomaticofacial foramen.
6. Lacrimal bones lacrimal groove.
7. Palatine bones greater palatine foramen --- lesser palatine foramen --- horizontal plate.
8. Mandibles mental foramen --- mental protuberance --- alveolar process --- body --- condylar process --- coronoid process --- mandibular notch --- ramus --- mandibular foramen.
Hyoid (Look at complete skeleton) body --- greater horns (cornua) --- lesser horns (cornua)