Anatomy 125

Final Exam

Lab 1: Nervous System Histology
  A. Nervous System Histology

1. Slide #19B (Spinal cord smear, giant multipolar neuron)

Find – nucleus --- cell body (soma) --- neuroglia --- processes (dendrites and axons).


2. Slide #21B (Medullated nerve, teased)

Find – Nodes of Ranvier (neurofibril nodes) --- axon --- endoneurium (may not be discernible).


3. Slide #22B (Medullated nerve, cross section, cross section, longitudinal section, longitudinal section)

Find – Fasciculus (fascicle) --- endoneurium --- perineurium --- epineurium --- axon --- myelin sheath.


  4. Photomicrographs of microglia, astroctye, ependymal cell, oligodendrocyte
  5. Photomicrograph of Nissl substance (bodies).

6. Slide #23B (Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex) (H & E of cerebellum, H & E of Purkinje cells, silver cerebellum)

Find – cortex with --- molecular layer --- Purkinje layer (central layer) with large orange Purkinje cells --- and granular layer --- white matter.


B. Model of Neuron

            Find – cell body (soma or perikaryon) --- Nissl bodies (chromatophilic substance) --- nucleus (of neuron) --- nucleolus --- dendrites --- axon ---axon hillock --- initial segment (of axon) --- axoplasm --- axolemma --- neurolemmocyte (Schwann cell) --- neurolemma --- myelin sheath --- node of Ranvier (neurofibril node) --- endoneurium --- axon terminal (telodendrite) --- nucleus of neurolemmocyte --- synaptic end bulb.


C. Histology of Spinal Cord

1. Slide #20B (spinal cord with ganglia)

Find – Lateral white column --- posterior white column --- anterior white column --- fasciculus cuneatus (lateral) --- fasiculus gracilis (medial) --- posterior grey horn --- lateral grey horn (if present) --- anterior grey horn --- motor neuron cell (soma or perikaryon) --- posterior median sulcus (septum) --- anterior median fissure --- grey commissure --- anterior white commissure --- dura mater --- pia mater --- arachnoid mater --- central canal --- dorsal root --- dorsal root ganglion --- ventral (anterior) root --- unipolar or sensory neuron cell bodies --- satellite cells --- anterior spinal artery --- epineurium.


Lab 2. Spinal Cord and Brain
  A. Models of Spinal Cord

1. Spinal cord cross section (older model)

   Videos: White & Gray Matter;  Meninges; Reflex Pathway; Review of Cross Sectional Anatomy

Find – anterior median fissure --- dura mater --- pia mater (pink) --- arachnoid mater --- posterior median sulcus --- lateral, posterior and anterior white columns --- grey commissure --- white anterior commissure --- central canal --- interneuron --- fasciculus gracilis --- fasiculus cuneatus --- subarachnoid space --- dorsal (posterior) root --- dorsal root ganglion --- spinal nerve --- sensory (afferent) neuron --- motor (efferent) neuron --- denticulate ligament.


2. Spinal cord cross section (newer model)

Find – The same things as in the older model except meninges are not present. You will see --- white and grey rami communicantes --- coming of the spinal nerves on this model.


3. Longitudinal model of entire spinal cord


General Information:

 Length of Spinal Cord; Naming the Spinal Nerves; Spinal Nerves & Segments 


 Cervical Region; Thoracic Region; Lumbar Region 
Plexuses:  Brachial Plexus; Lumbar & Sacral Plexuses;
Sympathetic Division:  Sympathetic Division; Sympathetic Chain Ganglia 
Cranial Nerves:  Cranial Nerves I to VI; Cranial Nerves VII to XII 

Find – cervical plexus --- phrenic nerve --- cervical enlargement --- thoracic (intercostal) nerves --- brachial plexus --- musculocutaneous nerve --- median nerve --- axillary nerve --- dorsal root ganglia --- sympathetic chain ganglia --- lumbar plexus --- femoral nerve --- sacral plexus --- sciatic nerve --- filum terminale --- cauda equina --- conus medullaris --- anterior median fissure --- denticulate ligaments. You can also see the twelve cranial nerves and the brain stem on this model.

  B. Models of the Brain
  1. Various Whole Brain models
       Find – frontal --- parietal --- occipital --- and temporal lobes --- insula --- central sulcus (fissure of Rolando) --- precentral gyrus --- postcentral gyrus --- left and right hemispheres --- longitudinal fissure --- transverse fissure --- lateral cerebral fissure --- olfactory bulb --- olfactory tract --- corpus callosum --- fornix --- septum pellucidum --- anterior and posterior commisures --- superior sagittal sinus --- straight sinus --- transverse sinus --- cingulate gyrus --- hippocampus.
       Note on the extra large brain model --- primary motor area --- premotor area --- primary somatosensory area --- somatosensory association area --- primary visual area --- visual association area --- primary auditory area --- auditory association area --- Broca’s area --- Wernicke’s area --- primary gustatory area.
       In the diencephalon of various models find – thalamus --- epithalamus --- hypothalamus --- third ventricle --- intermediate mass (massa intermedius) --- tuber cinereum with median eminence --- infundibulum --- pituitary gland --- mammillary body --- choroid plexus --- interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro) --- optic nerve (II) --- optic chiasm --- optic tract --- pineal gland.
       In the cerebellum of various models find - left and right hemispheres --- vermis --- folia --- arbor vitae.
       For the brain stem see the brain stem model below.
       Cranial nerves (look at the spinal cord model for the easiest introduction to the cranial nerves) - olfactory (I) --- optic (II) --- oculomotor nerve (III) --- trochlear nerve (IV) --- trigeminal nerve (V) --- abducens nerve (VI) --- facial nerve (VII) --- vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) --- glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) --- vagus nerve (X) --- accessory nerve (XI) --- hypoglossal nerve (XII).

2. Brainstem Model (anterior view, lateral view, sagittal view)

  Inferior Views:  Optic to Abducens Nerve; Medulla & Cranial Nerves
  Sagittal Views:  Thalamus & Epithalamus; Hypothalamus; Midbrain; Metencephalon & Medulla
  Superior View  Superior View
  Lateral View  Cranial Nerves
  Medial View  Caudate Nucleus
  Miscellaneous  Cerebral Nuclei; Corpus Callosum & Hippocampus; Insula & Corpus Callosum
  Ventricles  Ventricles; Lateral & Third Ventricles

     Find – thalamus --- pineal gland --- superior, middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles --- last 11 pairs of cranial nerves --- midbrain (mesencephalon) --- pons --- medulla oblongata --- pyramids --- olive --- hypothalamus --- corpora quadrigemina --- superior and inferior colliculi --- cerebral peduncles --- median eminence --- optic tract --- insula ---  mammillary body ---  caudate nucleus --- lenticular nucleus which can be divided into --- putamen and --- globus pallidus (caudate and lenticular nuclei together).


3. Ventricle Model (lateral view, posterior view)

   Video: Ventricle Model

            Find – Left and right lateral ventricles (along with their anterior, posterior and inferior horns) --- interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro) --- cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius) --- third ventricle --- space where intermediate mass is found --- choroid plexus (pink) --- fourth ventricle --- lateral apertures (ducts of Luschka) --- median aperture (duct of Magendie).

Lab 3. Sheep Brain Dissection and Preserved Human Specimens
Diagram of Sheep Brain - Lateral view
Diagram of Sheep Brain - Inferior view
A. Sheep Brain Dissection  inferior view of sheep brain; Sheep Brain Tutorial

      Today’s lab includes a sheep brain dissection. Try to save the first six cranial nerves (or at least one of each pair). I will go around to help you. When finished, you should place the brain back into the jar and put your name, your partner’s name, and your class time or section on the jar. The sheep brains will be stored in the cadaver room. You cannot take them home because they are preserved and could be toxic. This is school policy!

Structures to identify on the sheep brain

B. Preserved Human Brain
     The instructor will go over these and point out the structures you will be responsible for. Please be very gentle with these specimens!
C. Preserved Human Spinal Cord
     Find – anterior median fissure --- filum terminale --- pia mater --- dura mater --- dorsal root ganglia --- spinal nerves --- cauda equina --- lumbar enlargement --- cervical enlargement --- conus medullaris --- sciatic nerve --- rootlets --- denticulate ligaments --- brachial plexus --- sacral plexus --- lumbar plexus --- cervical plexus.
Structures to identify on preserved spinal cord
Lab 4: Special Senses (Eye and Ear)
  A. Histology of Eye
  1. Slide #24B (retina)
     Find – ganglion cell fiber layer --- ganglion cell layer --- inner synaptic layer (inner plexiform layer) --- bipolar cell layer (inner nuclear layer) --- outer synaptic layer (outer plexiform layer) --- photoreceptor layer (outer nuclear layer) --- outer limiting layer --- rods and cones --- pigmented epithelium (layer) --- choroid layer.
  B. Models of Eye
  1. Model of eye without surrounding structures
     Find – sclera --- cornea --- iris --- pupil --- ciliary body (with cilary process and ciliary muscle) --- suspensory ligament --- lens --- choroid layer --- retina --- ora serrata --- lacrimal gland --- macula lutea --- optic nerve --- retinal vein and artery --- posterior cavity (contains vitreous body) --- anterior cavity (contains aqueous humor).
  2. Model of eye with surrounding structures, unopened eye, rear of opened eye, front of opened eye
     In addition to the above find – medial, lateral, superior and inferior rectus muscles --- superior and inferior oblique muscles --- conjunctiva (palpebral and bulbar) --- palpebrae --- tarsal (Meibomian) glands --- lacrimal gland --- inferior and superior lacrimal canals --- lacrimal sacs --- nasolacrimal duct --- tarsal plate.
  C. Other Models of Ear
  1. Model of whole ear
   Video: Whole Ear Model
     Find – auricle or pinna (with helix and lobule) --- external auditory meatus --- temporal bone --- tympanic membrane (eardrum) --- ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) --- internal auditory meatus --- vestibulocochlear nerve VIII (cochlear and vestibular branch) --- auditory (Eustachian or pharyngotympanic) tube --- external ear --- middle ear --- internal ear --- semicircular canals (superior, posterior, lateral) --- tensor tympani --- stapedius (if present).
  2. Model of bony labyrinth (lateral view, medial view, anterior view, inferior view)
   Videos: Cochlea; Vestibule; Semicircular Canals
     Find – semicircular canals (superior or anterior, posterior, and lateral) --- bony labyrinth with perilymph (pink) --- membranous labyrinth with endolymph (grey) --- ampulla of semicircular canal --- utricle --- saccule --- vestibule --- cochlea (shaped like a snail shell) --- cochlear duct (scala media) --- round window (secondary tympanic membrane) --- oval window --- vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) with cochlear and vestibular branches --- vestibular duct (scala vestibuli) --- tympanic duct (scala tympani) --- spiral organ (organ of Corti) --- modiolus.
  D. Histology of Cochlea
  1. Slide #25B (cochlea and spiral organ)
     Find – spiral ganglia --- cochlear duct (scala media) --- vestibular duct (scala vestibuli) --- vestibular membrane --- tympanic duct (scala tympani) --- basilar membrane --- spiral organ (organ of Corti) --- tectorial membrane --- hair cells --- helicotrema where the two ducts meet (if present).
  2. Model of cochlea
   Video: Cochlear Model
     Find – spiral ganglia --- cochlear duct (scala media) --- vestibular duct (scala vestibuli) --- vestibular membrane --- tympanic duct (scala tympani) --- basilar membrane --- modiolus --- spiral organ (organ of Corti) --- tectoral membrane --- inner hair cell --- outer hair cells --- auditory (cochlear) nerve. Know which chambers contain perilymph and endolymph.