Lab 2. Spinal Cord and Brain
 
  A. Models of Spinal Cord
 
 

1. Spinal cord cross section (older model)

   Videos: White & Gray Matter;  Meninges; Reflex Pathway; Review of Cross Sectional Anatomy

Find – anterior median fissure --- dura mater --- pia mater (pink) --- arachnoid mater --- posterior median sulcus --- lateral, posterior and anterior white columns --- grey commissure --- white anterior commissure --- central canal --- interneuron --- fasciculus gracilis --- fasiculus cuneatus --- subarachnoid space --- dorsal (posterior) root --- dorsal root ganglion --- spinal nerve --- sensory (afferent) neuron --- motor (efferent) neuron --- denticulate ligament.
 

 

2. Spinal cord cross section (newer model)

Find – The same things as in the older model except meninges are not present. You will see --- white and grey rami communicantes --- coming of the spinal nerves on this model.
 

 

3. Longitudinal model of entire spinal cord

   Videos:

General Information:

 Length of Spinal Cord; Naming the Spinal Nerves; Spinal Nerves & Segments 

Regions:

 Cervical Region; Thoracic Region; Lumbar Region 
Plexuses:  Brachial Plexus; Lumbar & Sacral Plexuses;
Sympathetic Division:  Sympathetic Division; Sympathetic Chain Ganglia 
Cranial Nerves:  Cranial Nerves I to VI; Cranial Nerves VII to XII 

Find – cervical plexus --- phrenic nerve --- cervical enlargement --- thoracic (intercostal) nerves --- brachial plexus --- musculocutaneous nerve --- median nerve --- axillary nerve --- dorsal root ganglia --- sympathetic chain ganglia --- lumbar plexus --- femoral nerve --- sacral plexus --- sciatic nerve --- filum terminale --- cauda equina --- conus medullaris --- anterior median fissure --- denticulate ligaments. You can also see the twelve cranial nerves and the brain stem on this model.
 

  B. Models of the Brain
 
  1. Various Whole Brain models
       Find – frontal --- parietal --- occipital --- and temporal lobes --- insula --- central sulcus (fissure of Rolando) --- precentral gyrus --- postcentral gyrus --- left and right hemispheres --- longitudinal fissure --- transverse fissure --- lateral cerebral fissure --- olfactory bulb --- olfactory tract --- corpus callosum --- fornix --- septum pellucidum --- anterior and posterior commisures --- superior sagittal sinus --- straight sinus --- transverse sinus --- cingulate gyrus --- hippocampus.
       Note on the extra large brain model --- primary motor area --- premotor area --- primary somatosensory area --- somatosensory association area --- primary visual area --- visual association area --- primary auditory area --- auditory association area --- Broca’s area --- Wernicke’s area --- primary gustatory area.
       In the diencephalon of various models find – thalamus --- epithalamus --- hypothalamus --- third ventricle --- intermediate mass (massa intermedius) --- tuber cinereum with median eminence --- infundibulum --- pituitary gland --- mammillary body --- choroid plexus --- interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro) --- optic nerve (II) --- optic chiasm --- optic tract --- pineal gland.
       In the cerebellum of various models find - left and right hemispheres --- vermis --- folia --- arbor vitae.
       For the brain stem see the brain stem model below.
       Cranial nerves (look at the spinal cord model for the easiest introduction to the cranial nerves) - olfactory (I) --- optic (II) --- oculomotor nerve (III) --- trochlear nerve (IV) --- trigeminal nerve (V) --- abducens nerve (VI) --- facial nerve (VII) --- vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) --- glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) --- vagus nerve (X) --- accessory nerve (XI) --- hypoglossal nerve (XII).
 
 

2. Brainstem Model (anterior view, lateral view, sagittal view)

   Videos:
  Inferior Views:  Optic to Abducens Nerve; Medulla & Cranial Nerves
  Sagittal Views:  Thalamus & Epithalamus; Hypothalamus; Midbrain; Metencephalon & Medulla
  Superior View  Superior View
  Lateral View  Cranial Nerves
  Medial View  Caudate Nucleus
  Miscellaneous  Cerebral Nuclei; Corpus Callosum & Hippocampus; Insula & Corpus Callosum
  Ventricles  Ventricles; Lateral & Third Ventricles

     Find – thalamus --- pineal gland --- superior, middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles --- last 11 pairs of cranial nerves --- midbrain (mesencephalon) --- pons --- medulla oblongata --- pyramids --- olive --- hypothalamus --- corpora quadrigemina --- superior and inferior colliculi --- cerebral peduncles --- median eminence --- optic tract --- insula ---  mammillary body ---  caudate nucleus --- lenticular nucleus which can be divided into --- putamen and --- globus pallidus (caudate and lenticular nuclei together).
 

 

3. Ventricle Model (lateral view, posterior view)

   Video: Ventricle Model

            Find – Left and right lateral ventricles (along with their anterior, posterior and inferior horns) --- interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro) --- cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius) --- third ventricle --- space where intermediate mass is found --- choroid plexus (pink) --- fourth ventricle --- lateral apertures (ducts of Luschka) --- median aperture (duct of Magendie).