Anatomy 125

Exam 2

Lab 1: Blood 

     To look at blood cells you need to use the oil immersion objective (100X). First focus on the objective using the scanning objective. Then move to the 20X lens, refocus and then turn to the 40X objective and again use the fine focus to sharpen the image.

     Now move the high dry lens out of the way and place one drop of immersion oil on the slide over the specimen. Swing the 100X objective into place so that it goes into the oil. If you had the slide in focus on 40X then the immersion oil objective won’t hit the slide but it will get very close (parfocal). Use only the fine focus to bring the specimen into sharpness with the 100X lens down.

     You may move the slide about. The drop of oil is plenty for looking around. When you are finished, wipe everything with oil on it off! You can use Windex and Kleenex on the slide and use alcohol and lens paper on the oil objective and the high dry objective.

A. Blood Cells 
     You will now start to use the slides with the yellow labels on the bottom shelf, box B. 
1. Slide 8B (blood smear)
Using the oil immersion lens find – erythrocytes (red blood cells) --- thrombocytes (platelets) --- lymphocytes --- monocytes --- eosinophils --- neutrophils --- basophils.
2. Plaster-of-Paris models of formed elements
Be able to recognize the models of – small lymphocyte --- large lymphocyte --- monocyte --- neutrophil --- eosinophil --- basophil --- thrombocytes (platelets) with fibrin --- erythrocyte (RBC).
Lab 2: Appendicular Skeleton
Clavicles – sternal end --- acromial end --- conoid tubercle --- costal tuberosity.
Scapulae – acromion --- glenoid cavity (fossa) --- coracoid process --- body --- axillary (lateral) border --- vertebral (medial) border --- superior border --- inferior angle --- superior angle --- lateral angle (head of scapular) --- neck --- scapular spine --- supraspinous fossa --- infraspinous fossa --- subscapular fossa --- suprascapular notch.
Humerus – Greater and lesser tubercles --- anatomical neck --- surgical neck --- head --- bicipital (intertubercular) groove --- deltoid tuberosity --- diaphysis (shaft) --- coronoid fossa --- olecranon fossa --- radial fossa --- capitulum --- trochlea --- medial and lateral epicondyles.
Ulna – olecranon (process) --- radial notch --- coronoid process --- head --- semilunar (trochlear) notch --- styloid process.
Radius – head --- neck --- radial tuberosity --- ulnar notch --- styloid process.
Carpal bones – scaphoid (navicular) --- lunate --- triquetrum (triangular) --- pisiform --- trapezium --- trapezoid --- capitate --- hamate.
Metacarpal bones - five metacarpals numbered I - V starting with the thumb (pollex).
Phalanges – 14 phalanges named by position --- the thumb (which is called the pollex) has only two phalanges called the proximal phalanx of the first digit and distal phalanx of the first digit --- the others (numbered 2-5) have three phalanges: proximal, middle and distal.
Os coxae – ilium --- ischium --- pubis --- acetabulum with lunate surface and acetabular fossa --- iliac crest --- posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) --- (posterior inferior iliac spine) PIIS --- (anterior superior iliac spine) ASIS --- (anterior inferior iliac spine) AIIS --- ala --- auricular surface --- iliac tuberosity --- greater greater and lesser sciatic notches --- ischial spine --- body of pubis --- superior and inferior rami of pubis --- ischial tuberosity --- ischial ramus --- arcuate line ---obturator foramen --- obturator groove --- pectineal line --- pubic crest --- pubic tubercle.
Femur – Greater and lesser trochanters --- intertrochanteric crest --- intertrochanteric line --- fovea (capitis femoris) --- head --- neck --- linea aspera --- medial and lateral condyles --- medial and lateral epicondyles --- adductor tubercle --- intercondylar fossa --- patellar surface --- popliteal surface --- gluteal tuberosity.
Patella – apex --- base --- articular facet.
Tibia – tibial tuberosity --- medial and lateral condyles --- intercondyloid eminence --- anterior crest --- medial malleolus --- fibular notch --- inferior articular surface.
Fibula – head --- lateral malleolus.
Tarsal bones – talus --- calcaneus --- cuboid --- navicular --- first (medial) cuneiform --- second (intermediate) cuneiform --- third (lateral) cuneiform.
Metatarsal bones - Five bones numbered with Roman numerals I – V proceeding from medial to lateral.
Phalanges – named by position --- the great of big toe (hallux) has only two phalanges called the proximal phalanx of the first digit and the distal phalanx of the first digit --- the remaining phalanges are numbered 2–5 medial to lateral and have three phalanges, proximal, middle and distal.
Lab 3: Pig Heart Dissection and Human Heart Models
A. Pig Heart Dissection
     Working in groups of two or three, and using the instructions provided, dissect a pig heart. You will need to use gloves as these hearts are preserved in a preservative solution. The various structures that you will need to know will be hyperlinked.
B. Models of Human Heart (YouTube - Circulatory system) (YouTube - Heart Function)
Videos: Heart Model I: Miscellaneous Features; Anterior Surface; Radiographic Surfaces 
  Heart Model II: Surface Anatomy; Right Atrium; Right Ventricle; Left Atrium; Left Ventricle; Ventricles-Internal Anatomy; Azygos & Brachiocephalic Veins 
Superior vena cava --- azygos vein --- left and right brachiocephalic veins --- inferior vena cava --- ascending (systemic) aorta --- pulmonary trunk --- right and left pulmonary arteries --- two left pulmonary veins --- two right pulmonary veins --- ligamentum arteriosum (just a white line between the pulmonary trunk and systemic aorta on the small heart model and very pronounced on the thymus gland heart model) --- right auricle --- left auricle --- coronary sulcus --- right coronary artery with --- marginal branch --- posterior interventricular sulcus --- posterior interventricular artery --- middle cardiac vein --- left coronary artery with --- circumflex branch and --- anterior interventricular branch in the --- anterior interventricular sulcus --- coronary sinus --- aortic arch --- brachiocephalic artery --- left common carotid artery --- left subclavian artery --- great cardiac vein --- aortic semilunar valve --- pulmonary semilunar valve --- right atrioventricular (AV) valve also known as the tricuspid valve --- left atrioventricular (AV) valve also known as the mitral or bicuspid valve --- chordae tendineae --- papillary muscles --- right atrium --- right ventricle --- left atrium --- left ventricle --- interventricular septum ---  apex --- base or crown --- trabeculae carneae --- fossa ovalis (not present in the small heart model) --- myocardium --- epicardium (visceral pericardium) --- endocardium --- thymus --- interatrial septum.
Lab 4: Blood Vessels
A. Histology
1. Slide 9B (artery and vein) 
Find – artery --- vein --- nerve (if present) --- tunica interna (intima) --- internal and external elastic lamina (in artery) --- endothelium --- tunica media --- tunica adventitia (externa) --- lumen.
B. Models of blood vessels
1. Microscopic model of blood vessels (YouTube - Vessel)
Find the same structures as on slide 9A. In addition, find – valves. Note that the tunica externa on the vein is smaller than normal.
2. Macroscopic blood vessel models
There is quite a bit to memorize so make sure you allow a considerable amount of time to memorize these vessels!
  a. Model of arm vessels
Find – axillary artery and vein --- brachial artery and vein --- basilic vein --- cephalic vein --- radial artery and vein --- ulnar artery and vein --- median cubital vein.
  b. Model of liver
Video:  Blood Vessels 
 Find – hepatic portal vein --- hepatic artery --- inferior vena cava --- hepatic veins --- round ligament --- ligamentum venosum  (only seen in small liver model!
  c. Whole and half head models
Use both models (not everything is found on any one model) Find – superior sagittal sinus --- transverse sinus --- sigmoid sinus --- left and right vertebral arteries --- basilar artery --- left and right posterior communicating arteries --- left and right anterior cerebral arteries --- anterior communicating artery (last two can be seen on the brain itself).
   Incomplete circle of Willis and sinuses seen on the fat head model.
Sinuses visible on the half head model.
  d. Circle of Willis model
Please be very careful with this model! Do not touch the vessels or nerves with finger or pointer!
Find – vertebral arteries --- basilar artery --- left and right internal carotid arteries --- external carotid artery --- common carotid artery --- left and right anterior cerebral arteries --- anterior communicating artery --- left and right posterior communicating arteries. (The green structures represent nerves.)
"Carotid" vessels and vertebral vessels on the circle of Willis model.
  e. Torso  
Videos: Cephalic & Basilic Veins; Thoracic Veins; Heart; Abdominal Veins; Iliac Arteries; Abdominal Arteries (Paired); Abdominal Arteries (Unpaired)

Find – internal and external jugular veins --- cephalic vein --- basilic vein --- subclavian veins --- brachiocephalic veins --- superior vena cava --- pulmonary veins and arteries --- pulmonary trunk --- aorta --- inferior vena cava --- thoracic aorta --- abdominal aorta --- celiac trunk (just know that common hepatic artery, left gastric artery and splenic artery comes off) --- renal arteries and veins --- suprarenal arteries and veins --- superior mesenteric artery --- inferior mesenteric artery --- gonadal arteries and veins --- common iliac arteries and veins --- internal iliac arteries and veins --- external iliac arteries and veins --- thoracic lymphatic duct (grey) --- hemiazygos vein.
  f. Plaque of whole person (leg vessels)
Some of these blood vessels, particularly around the neck aren’t represented correctly. For example, this model attaches the external jugular vein to the internal jugular vein. However, find the major arteries and veins.
In addition to the arteries and veins already mentioned on other models find these lower limb vessels: femoral artery --- popliteal artery --- posterior tibial artery --- anterior tibial artery --- great saphenous vein --- small saphenous vein.
  g. Fetal circulation chart
Maternal circulation and Fetal circulation
Find – umbilical vein --- round ligament (ligamentum teres) --- left and right umbilical arteries --- medial umbilical ligaments --- ductus arteriosus --- ligamentum arteriosum --- foramen ovale --- fossa ovalis --- ductus venosus --- ligamentum venosum --- placenta --- umbilical cord.
Lab 5: Lymphatic and Respiratory Systems
A. Lymphatic System 
1. Slide 10A (lymph node; section of lymph node; close-up of cortex and medulla)
Find – cortex --- medulla --- hilus with blood vessels --- capsule --- germinal centers of secondary nodules --- medullary cords --- sinuses including --- trabecular,  subcapsular (cortical), and medullary sinuses --- trabeculae --- reticular fibers.
B. Respiratory System
 A. Histology 
1. Slide #10B (lung)
Find – Bronchus (cartilage, PCCE and smooth muscle) --- bronchiole (PCCE with some goblet cells, smooth muscle with adventitia, and little to no cartilage) --- terminal bronchiole (lined with PCCE and wavy mucosa, lamina propria, smooth muscle , adventitia and no goblets) --- respiratory bronchiole (columnar to simple cuboidal epithelium with little underlying smooth muscle and c.t. Alveoli can arise off these.) --- alveolar duct --- alveoli --- alveolar sac with simple squamous epithelium --- visceral pleura.
 B. Models
1. Half head model 
Videos: Nasal Cavity; Pharynx; Larynx 

 Find – superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae and their meati --- nasal cavity --- external naris --- vestibule --- olfactory area --- internal naris --- pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) --- sphenoid and frontal paranasal sinuses --- oropharynx --- laryngopharynx --- lingual tonsil --- palatine tonsil --- fauces --- buccal or oral cavity --- hard palate --- soft palate --- uvula --- tongue --- hyoid bone --- epiglottis --- thyroid cartilage --- cricoid cartilage --- true vocal cords (vocal folds) --- larynx --- false vocal cords (ventricular fold) --- trachea --- esophagus --- nasal septum --- auditory (Eustachian) tube opening.
2. Lung and heart model
Video: Lungs 
Find – hyoid bone --- thyroid cartilage --- cricoid cartilage --- thyroid ligament --- epiglottis --- true vocal cord (vocal fold) --- false vocal cord (ventricular fold) --- apex of left lung --- apex of right lung --- trachea --- C-rings --- larynx --- thyroid gland --- trachealis muscle --- carina --- primary bronchus (left and right) --- secondary bronchus ---tertiary bronchus --- lobes of each lung --- visceral pleura --- esophagus --- diaphragm --- hilus --- cardiac notch.
 3. Larynx model (anterior view, posterior view, superior view
Videos: Anterior View; Posterior View 

Find – hyoid bone --- epiglottis --- thyroid cartilage --- C-rings of trachea --- cricoid cartilage --- arytenoid cartilages --- corniculate cartilages --- true vocal cords --- trachealis.
4. Bronchial tree model  (Sagittal section of model) 
Videos: (Larynx:
Anterior View; Posterior View; Sagittal View); Trachea; Bronchi 
In addition to what is found on the larynx model find – left and right primary bronchi --- five secondary (lobar) bronchi --- tertiary (segmental) bronchi --- carina --- thyroid ligament.