Lab 4: Blood Vessels
A. Histology
1. Slide 9B (artery and vein) 
Find – artery --- vein --- nerve (if present) --- tunica interna (intima) --- internal and external elastic lamina (in artery) --- endothelium --- tunica media --- tunica adventitia (externa) --- lumen.
B. Models of blood vessels
1. Microscopic model of blood vessels (YouTube - Vessel)
Find the same structures as on slide 9A. In addition, find – valves. Note that the tunica externa on the vein is smaller than normal.
2. Macroscopic blood vessel models
There is quite a bit to memorize so make sure you allow a considerable amount of time to memorize these vessels!
  a. Model of arm vessels
Find – axillary artery and vein --- brachial artery and vein --- basilic vein --- cephalic vein --- radial artery and vein --- ulnar artery and vein --- median cubital vein.
  b. Model of liver
Video:  Blood Vessels 
 Find – hepatic portal vein --- hepatic artery --- inferior vena cava --- hepatic veins --- round ligament --- ligamentum venosum  (only seen in small liver model!
  c. Whole and half head models
Use both models (not everything is found on any one model) Find – superior sagittal sinus --- transverse sinus --- sigmoid sinus --- left and right vertebral arteries --- basilar artery --- left and right posterior communicating arteries --- left and right anterior cerebral arteries --- anterior communicating artery (last two can be seen on the brain itself).
   Incomplete circle of Willis and sinuses seen on the fat head model.
  
Sinuses visible on the half head model.
  d. Circle of Willis model
Please be very careful with this model! Do not touch the vessels or nerves with finger or pointer!
Find – vertebral arteries --- basilar artery --- left and right internal carotid arteries --- external carotid artery --- common carotid artery --- left and right anterior cerebral arteries --- anterior communicating artery --- left and right posterior communicating arteries. (The green structures represent nerves.)
"Carotid" vessels and vertebral vessels on the circle of Willis model.
  e. Torso  
Videos: Cephalic & Basilic Veins; Thoracic Veins; Heart; Abdominal Veins; Iliac Arteries; Abdominal Arteries (Paired); Abdominal Arteries (Unpaired)

Find – internal and external jugular veins --- cephalic vein --- basilic vein --- subclavian veins --- brachiocephalic veins --- superior vena cava --- pulmonary veins and arteries --- pulmonary trunk --- aorta --- inferior vena cava --- thoracic aorta --- abdominal aorta --- celiac trunk (just know that common hepatic artery, left gastric artery and splenic artery comes off) --- renal arteries and veins --- suprarenal arteries and veins --- superior mesenteric artery --- inferior mesenteric artery --- gonadal arteries and veins --- common iliac arteries and veins --- internal iliac arteries and veins --- external iliac arteries and veins --- thoracic lymphatic duct (grey) --- hemiazygos vein.
  f. Plaque of whole person (leg vessels)
Some of these blood vessels, particularly around the neck aren’t represented correctly. For example, this model attaches the external jugular vein to the internal jugular vein. However, find the major arteries and veins.
In addition to the arteries and veins already mentioned on other models find these lower limb vessels: femoral artery --- popliteal artery --- posterior tibial artery --- anterior tibial artery --- great saphenous vein --- small saphenous vein.
  g. Fetal circulation chart
Maternal circulation and Fetal circulation
Find – umbilical vein --- round ligament (ligamentum teres) --- left and right umbilical arteries --- medial umbilical ligaments --- ductus arteriosus --- ligamentum arteriosum --- foramen ovale --- fossa ovalis --- ductus venosus --- ligamentum venosum --- placenta --- umbilical cord.