Lab 1: Digestive System and Digestive System Histology
   Video: Cloaca Sculpture 
A. Models of Head and Teeth
1. Upright half head model (lateral view, inferior view, sagittal view)
Find – parotid salivary gland --- parotid (Stensen’s) duct --- submandibular salivary gland --- vermilion --- nasopharynx --- oropharynx --- laryngopharynx --- hard palate --- soft palate --- uvula --- epiglottis --- esophagus --- trachea --- the tonsils --- buccal or oral cavity --- fauces --- gingivae.
 
2. Torso half head model
Find – parotid salivary gland --- submandibular salivary gland --- submandibular (Wharton’s) duct --- sublingual salivary gland with lesser sublingual (Rivinus) duct --- root, body and apex of tongue --- circumvallate papillae --- papillae --- bucal or oral cavity.
 
3. Single tooth model
Find – crown --- neck --- roots --- pulp cavity or chamber --- pulp --- root canal --- apical foramen --- dentin --- enamel --- cementum.
 
4. Half jaw with teeth model (lateral view, medial view)
Find – incisors (medial and lateral) --- cuspid or canine tooth --- mandible --- premolars or bicuspids (first and second) --- molars (primary, secondary --- third molar (wisdom tooth) --- dentin --- enamel --- crown --- alveolar process --- inferior alveolar nerve --- caries --- an erupting tooth.
 
B. Esophagus     
Be able to identify the esophagus in the various models.
 
C. Histology of Stomach
Find tunica mucosa --- gastric pits --- gastric glands ---  tunica submucosa --- parietal cells --- surface mucous cells --- chief cells --- enteroendocrine cells.
 
2. Models of the stomach (Outside view, interior view1, interior view 2)
  Videos: Regions & Muscle Layers; Mucosal Surface  
Find – Fundus --- esophagus --- lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac or cardioesophageal sphincter) --- cardia --- three layers of the tunica muscularis (oblique, circular, longitudinal) --- body --- lesser curvature --- greater curvature --- pylorus (antrum and canal) --- pyloric sphincter --- rugae --- tunica mucosa --- gastric gland --- duodenum.
 
D. Small Intestines
1. Histology (duodenumplicae circulares, villus, simple columnar epithelium)
Find – tunica mucosa --- simple columnar epithelium --- brush border --- goblet cells --- villi --- lacteals (look like spaces inside the villi) --- basement membrane --- intestinal crypts (crypts of Lieberkuhn) --- muscularis mucosa --- lamina propria --- tunica submucosa --- submucosal (Brunner’s) glands --- lymph nodes (may not be present in your slide) --- tunica muscularis or muscularis externa --- circular and longitudinal muscle layers --- myenteric (Auerbach) plexus --- tunica serosa (visceral peritoneum).
 
2. Model of histology of duodenum (lateral view, inferior view)
  Videos: Layers (Transverse View); Layers & Mucosa; Submucosa; Muscularis & Serosa; Intestinal Glands 
Find – tunica mucosa with simple columnar epithelium --- goblet cells --- intestinal crypts (crypts of Lieberkuhn) --- Paneth cells (red cells at bottom of the crypts) --- lamina propria --- villus --- lacteal (light green in the villus) --- muscularis mucosa --- blood capillaries --- tunica submucosa with lymph nodule (light blue and purple mass) --- submucosal (Brunner’s) glands (light blue) --- submucosal (Meissner’s) plexus (yellow) --- tunica muscularis or muscularis externa --- myenteric plexus (plexus of Auerbach) (found between the circular and longitudinal layers of the tunica muscularis) --- branches of the mesenteric vein and artery --- tunica serosa with mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium).
Grey represents connective tissue, yellow represents nervous tissue, flesh colored or pink is muscle (except the simple columnar epithelium) and light green if for lymph vessels.
 
E. Histology of Colon (colon, mucosa of colon, goblet cells)
Find – tunica mucosa --- simple columnar epithelial layer --- lamina propria --- lymphatic nodule --- tunica submucosa --- muscularis externa or tunica muscularis --- taenia coli (if present).
 
F. Histology of Liver and Pancreas
1. Liver 1, Liver 2, Kupffer cells
Find – liver lobule --- central vein --- sinusoids --- hepatocytes (plate) --- stellate reticuloendothelial (Kupffer) cells (triangular in shape, dark and found within the sinusoids) --- bile ductule (lined with cuboidal epithelium) --- branch of hepatic portal vein (has largest lumen) --- branches of hepatic artery (thick wall and small lumen).
 
2. Pancreas (low magnification, higher magnification)
Find – pancreatic islet (islet of Langerhans) (lighter stained group of cells) --- acinar cells or pancreatic acini (the greater majority of cells and very dark staining --- pancreatic ducts.
 
G. Model of Liver
1. Model of liver (inferior view, posterior view, anterior view)
  Videos: Porta Hepatis; Lobes; Inferior Surface 
Find – hepatic artery --- hepatic veins --- hepatic portal vein --- left and right hepatic (bile) ducts --- cystic duct --- gall bladder --- round ligament (ligamentum teres) --- falciform ligament --- caudate lobe --- quadrate lobe --- right lobe --- left lobe --- inferior vena cava --- common hepatic duct --- ligamentum venosum.
 
H. Model of Torso
Find – hepatic or right colic flexure --- splenic or left coli flexure --- transverse colon --- ascending colon --- sigmoid colon --- rectum --- descending colon --- taeniae coli --- haustra --- ileum --- ileocecal valve or sphincter --- cecum --- mesocolon --- pylorus --- jejunum --- vermiform appendix --- lesser curvature of stomach --- greater curvature of stomach --- fundus of stomach --- C-loop of duodenum --- gall bladder --- spleen --- liver --- pancreas with pancreatic duct --- sublingual salivary gland --- tongue --- lesser sublingual (Rivinus) duct --- submandibular salivary gland --- submandibular (Wharton’s) duct --- parotid salivary gland --- esophagus.